Nucleic Acids Research

Nucleic Acids Research - RSS feed of current issue
  • Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion
    [Apr 2014]

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Physical constraints determine the logic of bacterial promoter architectures
    [Apr 2014]

    Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) bind to their target sites on the DNA, where they regulate the rate at which genes are transcribed. Bacterial TFs undergo facilitated diffusion (a combination of 3D diffusion around and 1D random walk on the DNA) when searching for their target sites. Using computer simulations of this search process, we show that the organization of the binding sites, in conjunction with TF copy number and binding site affinity, plays an important role in determining not only the steady state of promoter occupancy, but also the order at which TFs bind. These effects can be captured by facilitated diffusion-based models, but not by standard thermodynamics. We show that the spacing of binding sites encodes complex logic, which can be derived from combinations of three basic building blocks: switches, barriers and clusters, whose response alone and in higher orders of organization we characterize in detail. Effective promoter organizations are commonly found in the E. coli genome and are highly conserved between strains. This will allow studies of gene regulation at a previously unprecedented level of detail, where our framework can create testable hypothesis of promoter logic.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Constructing module maps for integrated analysis of heterogeneous biological networks
    [Apr 2014]

    Improved methods for integrated analysis of heterogeneous large-scale omic data are direly needed. Here, we take a network-based approach to this challenge. Given two networks, representing different types of gene interactions, we construct a map of linked modules, where modules are genes strongly connected in the first network and links represent strong inter-module connections in the second. We develop novel algorithms that considerably outperform prior art on simulated and real data from three distinct domains. First, by analyzing protein–protein interactions and negative genetic interactions in yeast, we discover epistatic relations among protein complexes. Second, we analyze protein–protein interactions and DNA damage-specific positive genetic interactions in yeast and reveal functional rewiring among protein complexes, suggesting novel mechanisms of DNA damage response. Finally, using transcriptomes of non–small-cell lung cancer patients, we analyze networks of global co-expression and disease-dependent differential co-expression and identify a sharp drop in correlation between two modules of immune activation processes, with possible microRNA control. Our study demonstrates that module maps are a powerful tool for deeper analysis of heterogeneous high-throughput omic data.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Suppression of intragenic transcription requires the MOT1 and NC2 regulators of TATA-binding protein
    [Apr 2014]

    Chromatin structure in transcribed regions poses a barrier for intragenic transcription. In a comprehensive study of the yeast chromatin remodelers and the Mot1p-NC2 regulators of TATA-binding protein (TBP), we detected synthetic genetic interactions indicative of suppression of intragenic transcription. Conditional depletion of Mot1p or NC2 in absence of the ISW1 remodeler, but not in the absence of other chromatin remodelers, activated the cryptic FLO8 promoter. Likewise, conditional depletion of Mot1p or NC2 in deletion backgrounds of the H3K36 methyltransferase Set2p or the Asf1p-Rtt106p histone H3-H4 chaperones, important factors involved in maintaining a repressive chromatin environment, resulted in increased intragenic FLO8 transcripts. Activity of the cryptic FLO8 promoter is associated with reduced H3 levels, increased TBP binding and tri-methylation of H3K4 and is independent of Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase function. These data reveal cooperation of negative regulation of TBP with specific chromatin regulators to inhibit intragenic transcription.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Androgen receptor uses relaxed response element stringency for selective chromatin binding and transcriptional regulation in vivo
    [Apr 2014]

    The DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of class I steroid receptors—androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone and mineralocorticoid receptors—recognize a similar cis-element, an inverted repeat of 5'-AGAACA-3' with a 3-nt spacer. However, these receptors regulate transcription programs that are largely receptor-specific. To address the role of the DBD in and of itself in ensuring specificity of androgen receptor (AR) binding to chromatin in vivo, we used SPARKI knock-in mice whose AR DBD has the second zinc finger replaced by that of the glucocorticoid receptor. Comparison of AR-binding events in epididymides and prostates of wild-type (wt) and SPARKI mice revealed that AR achieves selective chromatin binding through a less stringent sequence requirement for the 3'-hexamer. In particular, a T at position 12 in the second hexamer is dispensable for wt AR but mandatory for SPARKI AR binding, and only a G at position 11 is highly conserved among wt AR-preferred response elements. Genome-wide AR-binding events agree with the respective transcriptome profiles, in that attenuated AR binding in SPARKI mouse epididymis correlates with blunted androgen response in vivo. Collectively, AR-selective actions in vivo rely on relaxed rather than increased stringency of cis-elements on chromatin. These elements are, in turn, poorly recognized by other class I steroid receptors.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • MLL fusion proteins link transcriptional coactivators to previously active CpG-rich promoters
    [Apr 2014]

    Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) maintains the expression of cellular memory genes during development, while leukemic MLL fusion proteins aberrantly maintain expression of hematopoietic stem cell program genes such as HOXA9 to cause leukemia. However, the molecular mechanism of gene activation is unclear. Here we show that only two functional modules are necessary and sufficient for target recognition: those that bind to non-methylated CpGs and di-/tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me2/3). An artificial protein composed of the two targeting modules and an interaction domain for AF4-family coactivators can functionally substitute for MLL fusion proteins. Because H3K36me2/3 markers are indicative of active transcription, MLL fusion proteins target previously active CpG-rich genes and activate transcription by recruiting coactivators thereto. Our results indicate that such chromatin context-dependent gene activation is the fundamental mechanism by which MLL fusion proteins maintain the expression of the cellular memory/hematopoietic stem cell program genes.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • MLV integration site selection is driven by strong enhancers and active promoters
    [Apr 2014]

    Retroviruses integrate into the host genome in patterns specific to each virus. Understanding the causes of these patterns can provide insight into viral integration mechanisms, pathology and genome evolution, and is critical to the development of safe gene therapy vectors. We generated murine leukemia virus integrations in human HepG2 and K562 cells and subjected them to second-generation sequencing, using a DNA barcoding technique that allowed us to quantify independent integration events. We characterized >3 700 000 unique integration events in two ENCODE-characterized cell lines. We find that integrations were most highly enriched in a subset of strong enhancers and active promoters. In both cell types, approximately half the integrations were found in <2% of the genome, demonstrating genomic influences even narrower than previously believed. The integration pattern of murine leukemia virus appears to be largely driven by regions that have high enrichment for multiple marks of active chromatin; the combination of histone marks present was sufficient to explain why some strong enhancers were more prone to integration than others. The approach we used is applicable to analyzing the integration pattern of any exogenous element and could be a valuable preclinical screen to evaluate the safety of gene therapy vectors.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The RSC chromatin remodeling complex has a crucial role in the complete remodeler set for yeast PHO5 promoter opening
    [Apr 2014]

    Although yeast PHO5 promoter chromatin opening is a founding model for chromatin remodeling, the complete set of involved remodelers remained unknown for a long time. The SWI/SNF and INO80 remodelers cooperate here, but nonessentially, and none of the many tested single or combined remodeler gene mutations could prevent PHO5 promoter opening. RSC, the most abundant and only remodeler essential for viability, was a controversial candidate for the unrecognized remodeling activity but unassessed in vivo. Now we show that remodels the structure of chromatin (RSC) is crucially involved in PHO5 promoter opening. Further, the isw1 chd1 double deletion also delayed chromatin remodeling. Strikingly, combined absence of RSC and Isw1/Chd1 or Snf2 abolished for the first time promoter opening on otherwise sufficient induction in vivo. Together with previous findings, we recognize now a surprisingly complex network of five remodelers (RSC, SWI/SNF, INO80, Isw1 and Chd1) from four subfamilies (SWI/SNF, INO80, ISWI and CHD) as involved in PHO5 promoter chromatin remodeling. This is likely the first described complete remodeler set for a physiological chromatin transition. RSC was hardly involved at the coregulated PHO8 or PHO84 promoters despite cofactor recruitment by the same transactivator and RSC’s presence at all three promoters. Therefore, promoter-specific chromatin rather than transactivators determine remodeler requirements.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The hematopoietic regulator TAL1 is required for chromatin looping between the {beta}-globin LCR and human {gamma}-globin genes to activate transcription
    [Apr 2014]

    TAL1 is a key hematopoietic transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of a large cohort of erythroid genes as part of a complex with GATA-1, LMO2 and Ldb1. The complex mediates long-range interaction between the β-globin locus control region (LCR) and active globin genes, and although TAL1 is one of the two DNA-binding complex members, its role is unclear. To explore the role of TAL1 in transcription activation of the human -globin genes, we reduced the expression of TAL1 in erythroid K562 cells using lentiviral short hairpin RNA, compromising its association in the β-globin locus. In the TAL1 knockdown cells, the -globin transcription was reduced to 35% and chromatin looping of the G-globin gene with the LCR was disrupted with decreased occupancy of the complex member Ldb1 and LMO2 in the locus. However, GATA-1 binding, DNase I hypersensitive site formation and several histone modifications were largely maintained across the β-globin locus. In addition, overexpression of TAL1 increased the -globin transcription and increased interaction frequency between the G-globin gene and LCR. These results indicate that TAL1 plays a critical role in chromatin loop formation between the -globin genes and LCR, which is a critical step for the transcription of the -globin genes.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • A bacteriophage transcription regulator inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by {sigma}-factor displacement
    [Apr 2014]

    Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the inhibition of bacterial RNAp by the transcription regulator P7 encoded by Xanthomonas oryzae phage Xp10. We reveal that P7 uses a two-step mechanism to simultaneously interact with the catalytic β and β’ subunits of the bacterial RNAp and inhibits transcription initiation by inducing the displacement of the 70-factor on initial engagement of RNAp with promoter DNA. The new mode of interaction with and inhibition mechanism of bacterial RNAp by P7 underscore the remarkable variety of mechanisms evolved by phages to interfere with host transcription.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Coordinated repressive chromatin-remodeling of Oct4 and Nanog genes in RA-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells involves RIP140
    [Apr 2014]

    Maintaining pluripotency and indefinite self-renewal of embryonic stem cells requires a tight control of the expression of several key stemness factors, particularly Nanog and Oct4 transcription factors. The mammalian SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) complex contains Brg1 or Brm as its core subunit, along with Brg1-associated factors. Our previous studies have addressed chromatin-remodeling of the Oct4 gene locus in retinoic acid (RA)-treated embryonal carcinoma cell line P19, which involves receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) for heterochromatinization on the proximal promoter region of this gene locus. However, the mechanism of RIP140 action in RA-triggered repressive chromatin-remodeling is unclear. The current study examines RA repression of the Nanog gene and compares the results with RA repression of the Oct4 gene on the chromatin level. The results show a loose nucleosome array on the Nanog gene promoter in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. On RA treatment, the Nanog gene locus remodels specifically in the CR1 region of its proximal promoter, with the insertion of a nucleosome and compaction of this region. Further, RA induces coordinated chromatin-remodeling of both Nanog and Oct4 gene loci, which requires RA receptor-α, RIP140 and Brm. Finally, in these RA-triggered repressive chromatin-remodeling processes, lysine acetylation of RIP140 is critical for its recruiting Brm.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • DAXX co-folds with H3.3/H4 using high local stability conferred by the H3.3 variant recognition residues
    [Apr 2014]

    Histone chaperones are a diverse class of proteins that facilitate chromatin assembly. Their ability to stabilize highly abundant histone proteins in the cellular environment prevents non-specific interactions and promotes nucleosome formation, but the various mechanisms for doing so are not well understood. We now focus on the dynamic features of the DAXX histone chaperone that have been elusive from previous structural studies. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS), we elucidate the concerted binding-folding of DAXX with histone variants H3.3/H4 and H3.2/H4 and find that high local stability at the variant-specific recognition residues rationalizes its known selectivity for H3.3. We show that the DAXX histone binding domain is largely disordered in solution and that formation of the H3.3/H4/DAXX complex induces folding and dramatic global stabilization of both histone and chaperone. Thus, DAXX uses a novel strategy as a molecular chaperone that paradoxically couples its own folding to substrate recognition and binding. Further, we propose a model for the chromatin assembly reaction it mediates, including a stepwise folding pathway that helps explain the fidelity of DAXX in associating with the H3.3 variant, despite an extensive and nearly identical binding surface on its counterparts, H3.1 and H3.2.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The transcript elongation factor SPT4/SPT5 is involved in auxin-related gene expression in Arabidopsis
    [Apr 2014]

    The heterodimeric complex SPT4/SPT5 is a transcript elongation factor (TEF) that directly interacts with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to regulate messenger RNA synthesis in the chromatin context. We provide biochemical evidence that in Arabidopsis, SPT4 occurs in a complex with SPT5, demonstrating that the SPT4/SPT5 complex is conserved in plants. Each subunit is encoded by two genes SPT4-1/2 and SPT5-1/2. A mutant affected in the tissue-specifically expressed SPT5-1 is viable, whereas inactivation of the generally expressed SPT5-2 is homozygous lethal. RNAi-mediated downregulation of SPT4 decreases cell proliferation and causes growth reduction and developmental defects. These plants display especially auxin signalling phenotypes. Consistently, auxin-related genes, most strikingly AUX/IAA genes, are downregulated in SPT4–RNAi plants that exhibit an enhanced auxin response. In Arabidopsis nuclei, SPT5 clearly localizes to the transcriptionally active euchromatin, and essentially co-localizes with transcribing RNAPII. Typical for TEFs, SPT5 is found over the entire transcription unit of RNAPII-transcribed genes. In SPT4–RNAi plants, elevated levels of RNAPII and SPT5 are detected within transcribed regions (including those of downregulated genes), indicating transcript elongation defects in these plants. Therefore, SPT4/SPT5 acts as a TEF in Arabidopsis, regulating transcription during the elongation stage with particular impact on the expression of certain auxin-related genes.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Role of histone modifications and early termination in pervasive transcription and antisense-mediated gene silencing in yeast
    [Apr 2014]

    Most genomes, including yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are pervasively transcribed producing numerous non-coding RNAs, many of which are unstable and eliminated by nuclear or cytoplasmic surveillance pathways. We previously showed that accumulation of PHO84 antisense RNA (asRNA), in cells lacking the nuclear exosome component Rrp6, is paralleled by repression of sense transcription in a process dependent on the Hda1 histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the H3K4 histone methyl transferase Set1. Here we investigate this process genome-wide and measure the whole transcriptome of various histone modification mutants in a rrp6 strain using tiling arrays. We confirm widespread occurrence of potentially antisense-dependent gene regulation and identify three functionally distinct classes of genes that accumulate asRNAs in the absence of Rrp6. These classes differ in whether the genes are silenced by the asRNA and whether the silencing is HDACs and histone methyl transferase-dependent. Among the distinguishing features of asRNAs with regulatory potential, we identify weak early termination by Nrd1/Nab3/Sen1, extension of the asRNA into the open reading frame promoter and dependence of the silencing capacity on Set1 and the HDACs Hda1 and Rpd3 particularly at promoters undergoing extensive chromatin remodelling. Finally, depending on the efficiency of Nrd1/Nab3/Sen1 early termination, asRNA levels are modulated and their capability of silencing is changed.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Dissecting the function of the adult {beta}-globin downstream promoter region using an artificial zinc finger DNA-binding domain
    [Apr 2014]

    Developmental stage-specific expression of the β-type globin genes is regulated by many cis- and trans-acting components. The adult β-globin gene contains an E-box located 60 bp downstream of the transcription start site that has been shown to bind transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor (USF) and to contribute to efficient in vitro transcription. We expressed an artificial zinc finger DNA-binding domain (ZF-DBD) targeting this site (+60 ZF-DBD) in murine erythroleukemia cells. Expression of the +60 ZF-DBD reduced the recruitment and elongation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at the adult β-globin gene and at the same time increased the binding of Pol II at locus control region (LCR) element HS2, suggesting that Pol II is transferred from the LCR to the globin gene promoters. Expression of the +60 ZF-DBD also reduced the frequency of interactions between the LCR and the adult β-globin promoter. ChIP-exonuclease-sequencing revealed that the +60ZF-DBD was targeted to the adult β-globin downstream promoter and that the binding of the ZF-DBD caused alterations in the association of USF2 containing protein complexes. The data demonstrate that targeting a ZF-DBD to the adult β-globin downstream promoter region interferes with the LCR-mediated recruitment and activity of Pol II.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Direct activation of human and mouse Oct4 genes using engineered TALE and Cas9 transcription factors
    [Apr 2014]

    The newly developed transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 transcription factors (TF) offered a powerful and precise approach for modulating gene expression. In this article, we systematically investigated the potential of these new tools in activating the stringently silenced pluripotency gene Oct4 (Pou5f1) in mouse and human somatic cells. First, with a number of TALEs and sgRNAs targeting various regions in the mouse and human Oct4 promoters, we found that the most efficient TALE-VP64s bound around –120 to –80 bp, while highly effective sgRNAs targeted from –147 to –89-bp upstream of the transcription start sites to induce high activity of luciferase reporters. In addition, we observed significant transcriptional synergy when multiple TFs were applied simultaneously. Although individual TFs exhibited marginal activity to up-regulate endogenous gene expression, optimized combinations of TALE-VP64s could enhance endogenous Oct4 transcription up to 30-fold in mouse NIH3T3 cells and 20-fold in human HEK293T cells. More importantly, the enhancement of OCT4 transcription ultimately generated OCT4 proteins. Furthermore, examination of different epigenetic modifiers showed that histone acetyltransferase p300 could enhance both TALE-VP64 and sgRNA/dCas9-VP64 induced transcription of endogenous OCT4. Taken together, our study suggested that engineered TALE-TF and dCas9-TF are useful tools for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres is characterized by reduced compaction of telomeric chromatin
    [Apr 2014]

    Proper telomeric chromatin configuration is thought to be essential for telomere homeostasis and stability. Previous studies in mouse suggested that loss of heterochromatin marks at telomeres might favor onset of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway, by promoting homologous recombination. However, analysis of chromatin status at human ALT telomeres has never been reported. Here, using isogenic human cell lines and cellular hybrids, which rely either on telomerase or ALT to maintain telomeres, we show that chromatin compaction is reduced at ALT telomeres and this is associated with a global decrease in telomeric H3K9me3. This, subsequently, leads to upregulation of telomere transcription. Accordingly, restoration of a more condensed telomeric chromatin through telomerase-dependent elongation of short ALT telomeres reduces telomere transcription. We further show that loss of ATRX chromatin remodeler function, a frequent characteristic of ALT cells, is not sufficient to decrease chromatin condensation at telomeres nor to increase the expression of telomeric RNA species. These results offer new insight on telomeric chromatin properties in ALT cells and support the hypothesis that telomeric chromatin decondensation is important for ALT pathway.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Persistently stalled replication forks inhibit nucleotide excision repair in trans by sequestering Replication protein A
    [Apr 2014]

    Rev3, the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase , is essential for translesion synthesis of cytotoxic DNA photolesions, whereas the Rev1 protein plays a noncatalytic role in translesion synthesis. Here, we reveal that mammalian Rev3–/– and Rev1–/– cell lines additionally display a nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect, specifically during S phase. This defect is correlated with the normal recruitment but protracted persistence at DNA damage sites of factors involved in an early stage of NER, while repair synthesis is affected. Remarkably, the NER defect becomes apparent only at 2 h post-irradiation indicating that Rev3 affects repair synthesis only indirectly, rather than performing an enzymatic role in NER. We provide evidence that the NER defect is caused by scarceness of Replication protein A (Rpa) available to NER, resulting from its sequestration at stalled replication forks. Also the induction of replicative stress using hydroxyurea precludes the accumulation of Rpa at photolesion sites, both in Rev3–/– and in wild-type cells. These data support a model in which the limited Rpa pool coordinates replicative stress and NER, resulting in increased cytotoxicity of ultraviolet light when replicative stress exceeds a threshold.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The {alpha} isoform of topoisomerase II is required for hypercompaction of mitotic chromosomes in human cells
    [Apr 2014]

    As proliferating cells transit from interphase into M-phase, chromatin undergoes extensive reorganization, and topoisomerase (topo) IIα, the major isoform of this enzyme present in cycling vertebrate cells, plays a key role in this process. In this study, a human cell line conditional null mutant for topo IIα and a derivative expressing an auxin-inducible degron (AID)-tagged version of the protein have been used to distinguish real mitotic chromosome functions of topo IIα from its more general role in DNA metabolism and to investigate whether topo IIβ makes any contribution to mitotic chromosome formation. We show that topo IIβ does contribute, with endogenous levels being sufficient for the initial stages of axial shortening. However, a significant effect of topo IIα depletion, seen with or without the co-depletion of topo IIβ, is the failure of chromosomes to hypercompact when delayed in M-phase. This requires much higher levels of topo II protein and is impaired by drugs or mutations that affect enzyme activity. A prolonged delay at the G2/M border results in hyperefficient axial shortening, a process that is topo IIα-dependent. Rapid depletion of topo IIα has allowed us to show that its function during late G2 and M-phase is truly required for shaping mitotic chromosomes.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Modulation of ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response by cryptochrome 1
    [Apr 2014]

    Mammalian cryptochromes (Crys) are essential circadian clock factors implicated in diverse clock-independent physiological functions, including DNA damage responses. Here we show that Cry1 modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint (DDC) response by interacting with Timeless (Tim) in a time-of-day-dependent manner. The DDC capacity in response to UV irradiation showed a circadian rhythm. Interestingly, clock-deficient Cry1 and Cry2 double knockout (CryDKO) cells retained substantial DDC capacity compared with clock-proficient wild-type cells, although the Cry1-modulated oscillation of the DDC capacity was abolished in CryDKO cells. We found temporal interaction of Cry1 and Tim in the nucleus. When Cry1 was expressed in the nucleus, it was critical for circadian ATR activity. We regenerated rhythmic DDC responses by ectopically expressing Cry1 in CryDKO cells. In addition, we also investigated the DDC capacity in the liver of mice that were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin at different circadian times (CT). When mice were injected at CT20, about 2-fold higher expression of phosphorylated minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (p-MCM2) was detected compared with mice injected at CT08, which consequently affected the removal rate of cisplatin-DNA adducts from genomic DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate the intimate interaction between the circadian clock and the DDC system during genotoxic stress in clock-ticking cells.

    Categories: Journal Articles