Nucleic Acids Research
The omega subunit of the RNA polymerase core directs transcription efficiency in cyanobacteria
The eubacterial RNA polymerase core, a transcription machinery performing DNA-dependent RNA polymerization, consists of two α subunits and β, β' and subunits. An additional subunit is recruited for promoter recognition and transcription initiation. Cyanobacteria, a group of eubacteria characterized by oxygenic photosynthesis, have a unique composition of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core due to splitting of the β' subunit to N-terminal and C-terminal β' subunits. The physiological roles of the small subunit of RNAP, encoded by the rpoZ gene, are not yet completely understood in any bacteria. We found that although is non-essential in cyanobacteria, it has a major impact on the overall gene expression pattern. In rpoZ strain, recruitment of the primary factor into the RNAP holoenzyme is inefficient, which causes downregulation of highly expressed genes and upregulation of many low-expression genes. Especially, genes encoding proteins of photosynthetic carbon concentrating and carbon fixing complexes were down, and the rpoZ mutant showed low light-saturated photosynthetic activity and accumulated photoprotective carotenoids and α-tocopherol. The results indicate that the subunit facilitates the association of the primary factor with the RNAP core, thereby allowing efficient transcription of highly expressed genes.
Stepwise assembly of multiple Lin28 proteins on the terminal loop of let-7 miRNA precursors
Lin28 inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs through direct interactions with let-7 precursors. Previous studies have described seemingly inconsistent Lin28 binding sites on pre-let-7 RNAs. Here, we reconcile these data by examining the binding mechanism of Lin28 to the terminal loop of pre-let-7g (TL-let-7g) using biochemical and biophysical methods. First, we investigate Lin28 binding to TL-let-7g variants and short RNA fragments and identify three independent binding sites for Lin28 on TL-let-7g. We then determine that Lin28 assembles in a stepwise manner on TL-let-7g to form a stable 1:3 complex. We show that the cold-shock domain (CSD) of Lin28 is responsible for remodelling the terminal loop of TL-let-7g, whereas the NCp7-like domain facilitates the initial binding of Lin28 to TL-let-7g. This stable binding of multiple Lin28 molecules to the terminal loop of pre-let-7g extends to other precursors of the let-7 family, but not to other pre-miRNAs tested. We propose a model for stepwise assembly of the 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 pre-let-7g/Lin28 complexes. Stepwise multimerization of Lin28 on pre-let-7 is required for maximum inhibition of Dicer cleavage for a least one member of the let-7 family and may be important for orchestrating the activity of the several factors that regulate let-7 biogenesis.
Differential RISC association of endogenous human microRNAs predicts their inhibitory potential
It has previously been assumed that the generally high stability of microRNAs (miRNAs) reflects their tight association with Argonaute (Ago) proteins, essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, recent data have suggested that the majority of mature miRNAs are not, in fact, Ago associated. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous human miRNAs vary widely, by >100-fold, in their level of RISC association and show that the level of Ago binding is a better indicator of inhibitory potential than is the total level of miRNA expression. While miRNAs of closely similar sequence showed comparable levels of RISC association in the same cell line, these varied between different cell types. Moreover, the level of RISC association could be modulated by overexpression of complementary target mRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the level of RISC association of a given endogenous miRNA is regulated by the available RNA targetome and predicts miRNA function.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are central regulators of gene expression, and a large fraction of them are encoded in introns of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Thus, the biogenesis of intronic miRNAs by the microprocessor and the splicing of their host introns by the spliceosome require coordination between these processing events. This cross-talk is addressed here. We show that key microprocessor proteins Drosha and DGCR8 as well as pre-miRNAs cosediment with supraspliceosomes, where nuclear posttranscriptional processing is executed. We further show that inhibition of splicing increases miRNAs expression, whereas knock-down of Drosha increases splicing. We identified a novel splicing event in intron 13 of MCM7, where the miR-106b-25 cluster is located. The unique splice isoform includes a hosted pre-miRNA in the extended exon and excludes its processing. This indicates a possible mechanism of altering the levels of different miRNAs originating from the same transcript. Altogether, our study indicates interplay between the splicing and microprocessor machineries within a supraspliceosome context.
Trypanosome MKT1 and the RNA-binding protein ZC3H11: interactions and potential roles in post-transcriptional regulatory networks
The trypanosome zinc finger protein ZC3H11 binds to AU-rich elements in mRNAs. It is essential for survival of the mammalian-infective bloodstream form, where it stabilizes several mRNAs including some encoding chaperones, and is also required for stabilization of chaperone mRNAs during the heat-shock response in the vector-infective procyclic form. When ZC3H11 was artificially ‘tethered’ to a reporter mRNA in bloodstream forms it increased reporter expression. We here show that ZC3H11 interacts with trypanosome MKT1 and PBP1, and that domains required for both interactions are necessary for function in the bloodstream-form tethering assay. PBP1 interacts with MKT1, LSM12 and poly(A) binding protein, and localizes to granules during parasite starvation. All of these proteins are essential for bloodstream-form trypanosome survival and increase gene expression in the tethering assay. MKT1 is cytosolic and polysome associated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen and tandem affinity purification we found that trypanosome MKT1 interacts with multiple RNA-binding proteins and other potential RNA regulators, placing it at the centre of a post-transcriptional regulatory network. A consensus interaction sequence, H(E/D/N/Q)PY, was identified. Recruitment of MKT1-containing regulatory complexes to mRNAs via sequence-specific mRNA-binding proteins could thus control several different post-transcriptional regulons.
Antibiotic stress-induced modulation of the endoribonucleolytic activity of RNase III and RNase G confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in Escherichia coli
Here, we report a resistance mechanism that is induced through the modulation of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing on the exposure of Escherichia coli cells to aminoglycoside antibiotics. We observed decreased expression levels of RNase G associated with increased RNase III activity on rng mRNA in a subgroup of E. coli isolates that transiently acquired resistance to low levels of kanamycin or streptomycin. Analyses of 16S rRNA from the aminoglycoside-resistant E. coli cells, in addition to mutagenesis studies, demonstrated that the accumulation of 16S rRNA precursors containing 3–8 extra nucleotides at the 5’ terminus, which results from incomplete processing by RNase G, is responsible for the observed aminoglycoside resistance. Chemical protection, mass spectrometry analysis and cell-free translation assays revealed that the ribosomes from rng-deleted E. coli have decreased binding capacity for, and diminished sensitivity to, streptomycin and neomycin, compared with wild-type cells. It was observed that the deletion of rng had similar effects in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344. Our findings suggest that modulation of the endoribonucleolytic activity of RNase III and RNase G constitutes a previously uncharacterized regulatory pathway for adaptive resistance in E. coli and related gram-negative bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Curli synthesis and biofilm formation in enteric bacteria are controlled by a dynamic small RNA module made up of a pseudoknot assisted by an RNA chaperone
RydC pseudoknot aided by Hfq is a dynamic regulatory module. We report that RydC reduces expression of curli-specific gene D transcription factor required for adhesion and biofilm production in enterobacteria. During curli formation, csgD messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis increases when endogenous levels of RydC are lacking. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, stimulation of RydC expression also reduces biofilm formation by impairing curli synthesis. Inducing RydC early on in growth lowers CsgA, -B and -D protein and mRNA levels. RydC’s 5'-domain interacts with csgD mRNA translation initiation signals to prevent initiation. Translation inhibition occurs by an antisense mechanism, blocking the translation initiation signals through pairing, and that mechanism is facilitated by Hfq. Although Hfq represses csgD mRNA translation without a small RNA (sRNA), it forms a ternary complex with RydC and facilitates pseudoknot unfolding to interact with the csgD mRNA translation initiation signals. RydC action implies Hfq-assisted unfolding and mRNA rearrangements, but once the pseudoknot is disrupted, Hfq is unnecessary for regulation. RydC is the sixth sRNA that negatively controls CsgD synthesis. Hfq induces structural changes in the mRNA domains targeted by these six sRNAs. What we describe is an ingenious process whereby pseudoknot opening is orchestrated by a chaperone to allow RNA control of gene expression.
Structure-function analysis of the Yhc1 subunit of yeast U1 snRNP and genetic interactions of Yhc1 with Mud2, Nam8, Mud1, Tgs1, U1 snRNA, SmD3 and Prp28
Yhc1 and U1C are homologous essential subunits of the yeast and human U1 snRNP, respectively, that are implicated in the establishment and stability of the complex of U1 bound to the pre-mRNA 5' splice site (5'SS). Here, we conducted a mutational analysis of Yhc1, guided by the U1C NMR structure and low-resolution crystal structure of human U1 snRNP. The N-terminal 170-amino acid segment of the 231-amino acid Yhc1 polypeptide sufficed for vegetative growth. Although changing the zinc-binding residue Cys6 to alanine was lethal, alanines at zinc-binding residues Cys9, His24 and His30 were not. Benign alanine substitutions at conserved surface residues elicited mutational synergies with other splicing components. YHC1-R21A was synthetically lethal in the absence of Mud2 and synthetically sick in the absence of Nam8, Mud1 and Tgs1 or in the presence of variant U1 snRNAs. YHC1 alleles K28A, Y12A, T14A, K22A and H15A displayed a progressively narrower range of synergies. R21A and K28A bypassed the essentiality of DEAD-box protein Prp28, suggesting that they affected U1•5'SS complex stability. Yhc1 Arg21 fortifies the U1•5'SS complex via contacts with SmD3 residues Glu37/Asp38, mutations of which synergized with mud2 and bypassed prp28. YHC1-(1-170) was synthetically lethal with mutations of all components interrogated, with the exception of Nam8.
The crystal structure of TDP-43 RRM1-DNA complex reveals the specific recognition for UG- and TG-rich nucleic acids
TDP-43 is an important pathological protein that aggregates in the diseased neuronal cells and is linked to various neurodegenerative disorders. In normal cells, TDP-43 is primarily an RNA-binding protein; however, how the dimeric TDP-43 binds RNA via its two RNA recognition motifs, RRM1 and RRM2, is not clear. Here we report the crystal structure of human TDP-43 RRM1 in complex with a single-stranded DNA showing that RRM1 binds the nucleic acid extensively not only by the conserved β-sheet residues but also by the loop residues. Mutational and biochemical assays further reveal that both RRMs in TDP-43 dimers participate in binding of UG-rich RNA or TG-rich DNA with RRM1 playing a dominant role and RRM2 playing a supporting role. Moreover, RRM1 of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant D169G binds DNA as efficiently as the wild type; nevertheless, it is more resistant to thermal denaturation, suggesting that the resistance to degradation is likely linked to TDP-43 proteinopathies. Taken together all the data, we suggest a model showing that the two RRMs in each protomer of TDP-43 homodimer work together in RNA binding and thus the dimeric TDP-43 recognizes long clusters of UG-rich RNA to achieve high affinity and specificity.
Structural basis of sodium-potassium exchange of a human telomeric DNA quadruplex without topological conversion
Understanding the mechanism of Na+/K+-dependent spectral conversion of human telomeric G-quadruplex (G4) sequences has been limited not only because of the structural polymorphism but also the lack of sufficient structural information at different stages along the conversion process for one given oligonucleotide. In this work, we have determined the topology of the Na+ form of Tel23 G4, which is the same hybrid form as the K+ form of Tel23 G4 despite the distinct spectral patterns in their respective nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectra. The spectral difference, particularly the well-resolved imino proton NMR signals, allows us to monitor the structural conversion from Na+ form to K+ form during Na+/K+ exchange. Time-resolved NMR experiments of hydrogen–deuterium exchange and hybridization clearly exclude involvement of the global unfolding for the fast Na+/K+ spectral conversion. In addition, the K+ titration monitored by NMR reveals that the Na+/K+ exchange in Tel23 G4 is a two-step process. The addition of K+ significantly stabilizes the unfolding kinetics of Tel23 G4. These results offer a possible explanation of rapid spectral conversion of Na+/K+ exchange and insight into the mechanism of Na+/K+ structural conversion in human telomeric G4s.
Kt-23 from Thelohania solenopsae is a rare RNA kink turn (k-turn) where an adenine replaces the normal guanine at the 2n position. L7Ae is a member of a strongly conserved family of proteins that bind a range of k-turn structures in the ribosome, box C/D and H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs and U4 small nuclear RNA. We have solved the crystal structure of T. solenopsae Kt-23 RNA bound to Archeoglobus fulgidus L7Ae protein at a resolution of 2.95 Å. The protein binds in the major groove displayed on the outer face of the k-turn, in a manner similar to complexes with standard k-turn structures. The k-turn adopts a standard N3 class conformation, with a single hydrogen bond from A2b N6 to A2n N3. This contrasts with the structure of the same sequence located in the SAM-I riboswitch, where it adopts an N1 structure, showing the inherent plasticity of k-turn structure. This potentially can affect any tertiary interactions in which the RNA participates.
Structure of human RNA N6-methyladenine demethylase ALKBH5 provides insights into its mechanisms of nucleic acid recognition and demethylation
ALKBH5 is a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron-dependent nucleic acid oxygenase (NAOX) that catalyzes the demethylation of N6-methyladenine in RNA. ALKBH5 is upregulated under hypoxia and plays a role in spermatogenesis. We describe a crystal structure of human ALKBH5 (residues 66–292) to 2.0 Å resolution. ALKBH566–292 has a double-stranded β-helix core fold as observed in other 2OG and iron-dependent oxygenase family members. The active site metal is octahedrally coordinated by an HXD...H motif (comprising residues His204, Asp206 and His266) and three water molecules. ALKBH5 shares a nucleotide recognition lid and conserved active site residues with other NAOXs. A large loop (βIV–V) in ALKBH5 occupies a similar region as the L1 loop of the fat mass and obesity-associated protein that is proposed to confer single-stranded RNA selectivity. Unexpectedly, a small molecule inhibitor, IOX3, was observed covalently attached to the side chain of Cys200 located outside of the active site. Modelling substrate into the active site based on other NAOX–nucleic acid complexes reveals conserved residues important for recognition and demethylation mechanisms. The structural insights will aid in the development of inhibitors selective for NAOXs, for use as functional probes and for therapeutic benefit.
Expanding the zinc-finger recombinase repertoire: directed evolution and mutational analysis of serine recombinase specificity determinants
The serine recombinases are a diverse family of modular enzymes that promote high-fidelity DNA rearrangements between specific target sites. Replacement of their native DNA-binding domains with custom-designed Cys2–His2 zinc-finger proteins results in the creation of engineered zinc-finger recombinases (ZFRs) capable of achieving targeted genetic modifications. The flexibility afforded by zinc-finger domains enables the design of hybrid recombinases that recognize a wide variety of potential target sites; however, this technology remains constrained by the strict recognition specificities imposed by the ZFR catalytic domains. In particular, the ability to fully reprogram serine recombinase catalytic specificity has been impeded by conserved base requirements within each recombinase target site and an incomplete understanding of the factors governing DNA recognition. Here we describe an approach to complement the targeting capacity of ZFRs. Using directed evolution, we isolated mutants of the β and Sin recombinases that specifically recognize target sites previously outside the scope of ZFRs. Additionally, we developed a genetic screen to determine the specific base requirements for site-specific recombination and showed that specificity profiling enables the discovery of unique genomic ZFR substrates. Finally, we conducted an extensive and family-wide mutational analysis of the serine recombinase DNA-binding arm region and uncovered a diverse network of residues that confer target specificity. These results demonstrate that the ZFR repertoire is extensible and highlights the potential of ZFRs as a class of flexible tools for targeted genome engineering.
The RNA world hypothesis describes a stage in the early evolution of life in which RNA served as genome and as the only genome-encoded catalyst. To test whether RNA world organisms could have used cyclic trimetaphosphate as an energy source, we developed an in vitro selection strategy for isolating ribozymes that catalyze the triphosphorylation of RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups with trimetaphosphate. Several active sequences were isolated, and one ribozyme was analyzed in more detail. The ribozyme was truncated to 96 nt, while retaining full activity. It was converted to a trans-format and reacted with rates of 0.16 min–1 under optimal conditions. The secondary structure appears to contain a four-helical junction motif. This study showed that ribozymes can use trimetaphosphate to triphosphorylate RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups and suggested that RNA world organisms could have used trimetaphosphate as their energy source.
Rational optimization of tolC as a powerful dual selectable marker for genome engineering
Selection has been invaluable for genetic manipulation, although counter-selection has historically exhibited limited robustness and convenience. TolC, an outer membrane pore involved in transmembrane transport in E. coli, has been implemented as a selectable/counter-selectable marker, but counter-selection escape frequency using colicin E1 precludes using tolC for inefficient genetic manipulations and/or with large libraries. Here, we leveraged unbiased deep sequencing of 96 independent lineages exhibiting counter-selection escape to identify loss-of-function mutations, which offered mechanistic insight and guided strain engineering to reduce counter-selection escape frequency by ~40-fold. We fundamentally improved the tolC counter-selection by supplementing a second agent, vancomycin, which reduces counter-selection escape by 425-fold, compared colicin E1 alone. Combining these improvements in a mismatch repair proficient strain reduced counter-selection escape frequency by 1.3E6-fold in total, making tolC counter-selection as effective as most selectable markers, and adding a valuable tool to the genome editing toolbox. These improvements permitted us to perform stable and continuous rounds of selection/counter-selection using tolC, enabling replacement of 10 alleles without requiring genotypic screening for the first time. Finally, we combined these advances to create an optimized E. coli strain for genome engineering that is ~10-fold more efficient at achieving allelic diversity than previous best practices.
Chromosomes within eukaryotic cell nuclei at interphase are not positioned at random, since gene-rich chromosomes are predominantly found towards the interior of the cell nucleus across a number of cell types. The physical mechanisms that could drive and maintain the spatial segregation of chromosomes based on gene density are unknown. Here, we identify a mechanism for such segregation, showing that the territorial organization of chromosomes, another central feature of nuclear organization, emerges naturally from our model. Our computer simulations indicate that gene density-dependent radial segregation of chromosomes arises as a robust consequence of differences in non-equilibrium activity across chromosomes. Arguing that such differences originate in the inhomogeneous distribution of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcription machinery on each chromosome, we show that a variety of non-random positional distributions emerge through the interplay of such activity, nuclear shape and specific interactions of chromosomes with the nuclear envelope. Results from our model are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and we make a number of predictions that can be tested in experiments.
The RNase H-like superfamily: new members, comparative structural analysis and evolutionary classification
Ribonuclease H-like (RNHL) superfamily, also called the retroviral integrase superfamily, groups together numerous enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism and implicated in many biological processes, including replication, homologous recombination, DNA repair, transposition and RNA interference. The RNHL superfamily proteins show extensive divergence of sequences and structures. We conducted database searches to identify members of the RNHL superfamily (including those previously unknown), yielding >60 000 unique domain sequences. Our analysis led to the identification of new RNHL superfamily members, such as RRXRR (PF14239), DUF460 (PF04312, COG2433), DUF3010 (PF11215), DUF429 (PF04250 and COG2410, COG4328, COG4923), DUF1092 (PF06485), COG5558, OrfB_IS605 (PF01385, COG0675) and Peptidase_A17 (PF05380). Based on the clustering analysis we grouped all identified RNHL domain sequences into 152 families. Phylogenetic studies revealed relationships between these families, and suggested a possible history of the evolution of RNHL fold and its active site. Our results revealed clear division of the RNHL superfamily into exonucleases and endonucleases. Structural analyses of features characteristic for particular groups revealed a correlation between the orientation of the C-terminal helix with the exonuclease/endonuclease function and the architecture of the active site. Our analysis provides a comprehensive picture of sequence-structure-function relationships in the RNHL superfamily that may guide functional studies of the previously uncharacterized protein families.