Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

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  • Nonequilibrium dynamics during viral DNA packaging [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Jun 2014]

    Many viruses use molecular motors that generate large forces to package DNA to near-crystalline densities inside preformed viral proheads. Besides being a key step in viral assembly, this process is of interest as a model for understanding the physics of charged polymers under tight 3D confinement. A large number of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions [Chemistry]
    [Jun 2014]

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Asymmetric synthesis of remotely chiral 1-alkanols [Chemistry]
    [Jun 2014]

    Despite recent advances of asymmetric synthesis, the preparation of enantiomerically pure (≥99% ee) compounds remains a challenge in modern organic chemistry. We report here a strategy for a highly enantioselective (≥99% ee) and catalytic synthesis of various γ- and more-remotely chiral alcohols from terminal alkenes via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Solid-state structures of peapod bearings [Chemistry]
    [Jun 2014]

    A supramolecular combination of carbon nanotube and fullerene, so-called a peapod, has attracted much interest, not solely because of its physical properties but also for its unique assembled structures of carbonaceous entities. However, the detailed structural information available was not sufficient for in-depth understanding of its structural chemistry or for...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Optimizing antibiotic treatment protocols [Population Biology]
    [Jun 2014]

    The successful treatment of bacterial infections is the product of a collaboration between antibiotics and the host’s immune defenses. Nevertheless, in the design of antibiotic treatment regimens, few studies have explored the combined action of antibiotics and the immune response to clearing infections. Here, we use mathematical models to examine...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Spraying to see cancer cells [Inner Workings]
    [Jun 2014]

    In a Stanford University operating room, surgeons peer into the abdomen of a patient, scalpels delicately dancing under the bright lights. They’re removing a gastric tumor, hoping they can cut away every cancerous cell. Just outside the operating room, an unlikely group waits to lend a hand: they’re not medical...
    Categories: Journal Articles