Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
  • Mechanism of a translational GTPase [Biochemistry]
    [Oct 2014]

    GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), a translational GTPase that delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, plays a crucial role in decoding and translational fidelity. The basic reaction mechanism and the way the ribosome contributes to catalysis are a matter of debate. Here we use mutational analysis in combination with...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • RIPK1 inhibits RIPK3 to maintain hematopoiesis [Cell Biology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is recruited to the TNF receptor 1 to mediate proinflammatory signaling and to regulate TNF-induced cell death. RIPK1 deficiency results in postnatal lethality, but precisely why Ripk1−/− mice die remains unclear. To identify the lineages and cell types that depend on RIPK1 for survival, we...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Gelsolin confers chemoresistance [Cell Biology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Chemoresistance is a major hurdle in cancer treatment. Down-regulation of apoptosis pathways is one of the key determinants for chemoresistance. Here, we report higher gelsolin (GSN) levels in chemoresistant gynecological cancer cells compared with their sensitive counterparts. cis-Diammine dichloroplatinium (II) (CDDP)-induced GSN down-regulation is associated with its cleavage and apoptosis....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Memory in chemotaxis [Cell Biology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Natural chemical gradients to which cells respond chemotactically are often dynamic, with both spatial and temporal components. A primary example is the social amoeba Dictyostelium, which migrates to the source of traveling waves of chemoattractant as part of a self-organized aggregation process. Despite its physiological importance, little is known about...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Transcription defects in Cockayne syndrome [Cell Biology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder with severe neurological symptoms. The majority of CS patients carry mutations in Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB), best known for its role in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Indeed, because various repair pathways are compromised in patient cells, CS is widely considered a genome...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Compound from Hoodia activates GPR119 [Chemistry]
    [Oct 2014]

    African cactiform Hoodia gordonii (Asclepiadaceae) has been used for thousands of years by Xhomani Bushmen as an anorexant during hunting trips and has been proposed as a new agent for the management of body weight. However, its in vivo targets and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. GPR119, a G protein-coupled receptor...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Mosquito-specific microRNA [Developmental Biology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Lineage-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to functions specific to hematophagous mosquitoes and, as such, have potential for contributing to the development of future mosquito control approaches. Here we report that the mosquito- and gut-specific miRNA, miR-1174, is required for proper sugar absorption, fluid excretion, blood intake, and, consequently, egg maturation...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Ebf2 expression identifies brown preadipose cells [Developmental Biology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Brown adipocytes and muscle and dorsal dermis descend from precursor cells in the dermomyotome, but the factors that regulate commitment to the brown adipose lineage are unknown. Here, we prospectively isolated and determined the molecular profile of embryonic brown preadipose cells. Brown adipogenic precursor activity in embryos was confined to...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Soil communities and ecosystem multifunctionality [Ecology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Ecosystem management policies increasingly emphasize provision of multiple, as opposed to single, ecosystem services. Management for such “multifunctionality” has stimulated research into the role that biodiversity plays in providing desired rates of multiple ecosystem processes. Positive effects of biodiversity on indices of multifunctionality are consistently found, primarily because species that...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Theory of development resilience [Economic Sciences]
    [Oct 2014]

    We advance a theory of resilience as it applies to the challenges of international development. The conceptualization we advance for development resilience focuses on the stochastic dynamics of individual and collective human well-being, especially on the avoidance of and escape from chronic poverty over time in the face of myriad...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Structural adaptations in beetle horns [Evolution]
    [Oct 2014]

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Divergent adaptation to drought in conifers [Evolution]
    [Oct 2014]

    Water stress is one of the primary selective forces in plant evolution. There are characters often cited as adaptations to water stress, but links between the function of these traits and adaptation to drying climates are tenuous. Here we combine distributional, climatic, and physiological evidence from 42 species of conifers...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Alternating drugs constrains paths to resistance [Evolution]
    [Oct 2014]

    Alternating antibiotic therapy, in which pairs of drugs are cycled during treatment, has been suggested as a means to inhibit the evolution of de novo resistance while avoiding the toxicity associated with more traditional combination therapy. However, it remains unclear under which conditions and by what means such alternating treatments...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Symbiotic complementary substrate decomposition [Evolution]
    [Oct 2014]

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis have remained enigmatic. We obtained...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • NK- and T-cell responses to influenza in pregnancy [Immunology and Inflammation]
    [Oct 2014]

    Pregnant women experience increased morbidity and mortality after influenza infection, for reasons that are not understood. Although some data suggest that natural killer (NK)- and T-cell responses are suppressed during pregnancy, influenza-specific responses have not been previously evaluated. Thus, we analyzed the responses of women that were pregnant (n =...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Insulin/IGF1 receptors and imprinted genes [Medical Sciences]
    [Oct 2014]

    In addition to signaling through the classical tyrosine kinase pathway, recent studies indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors (IGF1Rs) can emit signals in the unoccupied state through some yet-to-be-defined noncanonical pathways. Here we show that cells lacking both IRs and IGF1Rs exhibit a major...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • miR-223 regulates cholesterol metabolism [Medical Sciences]
    [Oct 2014]

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes and contribute to metabolic homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-223 (miR-223), an miRNA previously associated with inflammation, also controls multiple mechanisms associated with cholesterol metabolism. miR-223 promoter activity and mature levels were found to be linked to cellular cholesterol states in...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Spinopathy in mutant UBQLN2 transgenic mice [Medical Sciences]
    [Oct 2014]

    Mutations in the gene encoding ubiquilin2 (UBQLN2) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal type of dementia, or both. However, the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that ALS/dementia-linked UBQLN2P497H transgenic mice develop neuronal pathology with ubiquilin2/ubiquitin/p62-positive inclusions in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, recapitulating several key pathological features...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • RvD1 blocks calcium kinase signaling to limit LTB4 [Medical Sciences]
    [Oct 2014]

    Imbalances between proinflammatory and proresolving mediators can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. The balance of arachidonic acid-derived mediators in leukocytes is thought to be achieved through intracellular localization of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX): nuclear 5-LOX favors the biosynthesis of proinflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4), whereas, in theory, cytoplasmic 5-LOX could favor the biosynthesis...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Precisely modulated SaPI interference with phage [Microbiology]
    [Oct 2014]

    Having gone to great evolutionary lengths to develop resistance to bacteriophages, bacteria have come up with resistance mechanisms directed at every aspect of the bacteriophage life cycle. Most genes involved in phage resistance are carried by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophages and their relatives. A very special...
    Categories: Journal Articles