Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
  • Gq/5-HT2c-R signals modulate anxiety circuits [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2014]

    Serotonin 2c receptors (5-HT2c-Rs) are drug targets for certain mental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety. 5-HT2c-Rs are expressed throughout the brain, making it difficult to link behavioral changes to circuit specific receptor expression. Various 5-HT-Rs, including 5-HT2c-Rs, are found in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN); however, the function of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • von Willebrand factor links sodium to thrombosis [Physiology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Hypercoagulability increases risk of thrombi that cause cardiovascular events. Here we identify plasma sodium concentration as a factor that modulates blood coagulability by affecting the production of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a key initiator of the clotting cascade. We find that elevation of salt over a range from the lower...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Stoichiometry and assembly of Best channels [Physiology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Human Bestrophin 1 (hBest1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel that regulates neuronal excitability, synaptic activity, and retinal homeostasis. Mutations in hBest1 cause the autosomal-dominant Best macular dystrophy (BMD). Because hBest1 mutations cause BMD, but a knockout does not, we wondered if hBest1 mutants exert a dominant negative effect through interaction...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Salt stress-induced Ca2+ waves [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Their sessile lifestyle means that plants have to be exquisitely sensitive to their environment, integrating many signals to appropriate developmental and physiological responses. Stimuli ranging from wounding and pathogen attack to the distribution of water and nutrients in the soil are frequently presented in a localized manner but responses are...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • NRAT1 variation underlies rice aluminum tolerance [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for crop production on acid soils which compose ∼40% of arable land in the tropics and subtropics. Rice is the most Al-tolerant cereal crop and offers a good model for identifying Al tolerance genes and mechanisms. Here we investigated natural variation in the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Far transfer to language and math [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    Executive functions (EF) in children can be trained, but it remains unknown whether training-related benefits elicit far transfer to real-life situations. Here, we investigate whether a set of computerized games might yield near and far transfer on an experimental and an active control group of low-SES otherwise typically developing 6-y-olds...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    [Apr 2014]

    Modeling the spread of a citrus epidemic Measures to control the spread of emerging epidemics can hamper the assessment of the epidemiological parameters needed to predict the further spread of the epidemic and the effectiveness of control strategies. Matthew Parry et al. (pp. 6258–6262) used the spread of Huanglongbing (HLB),...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Making proximal airway epithelium from stem cells [Cell Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    The differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to mature cell types—and ultimately to functional tissues and organs—holds great promise for personalized disease modeling, drug screening, and the development of cell-based therapies (1). Since Shinya Yamanaka described this Nobel Prize winning technology in 2006, there have been a number of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Range of quantum entanglement [Physics]
    [Apr 2014]

    The quantum world differs from our classical experience in many ways. Perhaps most curious is the phenomenon of quantum entanglement, where measuring the state of one particle can instantaneously define the state of another, even though the second particle is arbitrarily distant. For much of the 20th century, it was...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Designed IgM from glycoengineering [Applied Biological Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    Among the immunoglobulins, the IgGs have received the lion’s share of attention and dominate the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are US Food and Drug Administration-approved or are in research pipelines leading to the clinic. Whereas IgG is relatively easy to produce and purify and a number of host expression systems...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Plants pass the salt via calcium waves [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    The existence and relevance of rapid long-distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Defining functional DNA elements [Genetics]
    [Apr 2014]

    With the completion of the human genome sequence, attention turned to identifying and annotating its functional DNA elements. As a complement to genetic and comparative genomics approaches, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project was launched to contribute maps of RNA transcripts, transcriptional regulator binding sites, and chromatin states in many...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Breeding and gene flow in animal domestication [Social Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    For the last 150 y scholars have focused upon the roles of intentional breeding and genetic isolation as fundamental to understanding the process of animal domestication. This analysis of ethnoarchaeological, archaeological, and genetic data suggests that long-term gene flow between wild and domestic stocks was much more common than previously...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Particularism and the retreat from theory [Social Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    The introduction of new analytic methods and expansion of research into previously untapped regions have greatly increased the scale and resolution of data relevant to the origins of agriculture (OA). As a result, the recognition of varied historical pathways to agriculture and the continuum of management strategies have complicated the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Rice domestication [Biological Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal grains in the world today and serves as a staple food source for more than half of the world’s population. Research into when, where, and how rice was brought into cultivation and eventually domesticated, along with its development into a...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Origin of domesticated chili pepper in Mexico [Anthropology]
    [Apr 2014]

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Inference for an emerging arboreal epidemic [Agricultural Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    The spread of Huanglongbing through citrus groves is used as a case study for modeling an emerging epidemic in the presence of a control. Specifically, the spread of the disease is modeled as a susceptible-exposed-infectious-detected-removed epidemic, where the exposure and infectious times are not observed, detection times are censored, removal...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Present and future of domestication studies [Social Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Validity of domestication genes using ancient DNA [Anthropology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Different IgM glycoforms from plants [Applied Biological Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    IgM antibodies are an important player of the human’s innate defense mechanisms and increasingly have gained interest as therapeutics. Although the expression of IgM antibodies in mammalian cell culture is established, this approach remains costly and alternative methods have not been developed yet. Plants have a proven record for the...
    Categories: Journal Articles