Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

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  • Thalamocortical rhythms in decision making [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2014]

    To explore the role of oscillatory dynamics of the somatosensory thalamocortical network in perception and decision making, we recorded the simultaneous neuronal activity in the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) of the somatosensory thalamus and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in two macaque monkeys performing a vibrotactile detection task. Actively detecting a...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Vacuolar K+ controls stomatal activity [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Stomatal movements rely on alterations in guard cell turgor. This requires massive K+ bidirectional fluxes across the plasma and tonoplast membranes. Surprisingly, given their physiological importance, the transporters mediating the energetically uphill transport of K+ into the vacuole remain to be identified. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis guard cells,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • From cell-cell signaling to intercellular force [Chemistry]
    [Apr 2014]

    To understand how pairwise cellular interactions influence cellular architectures, we measured the levels of functional proteins associated with EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling in pairs of U87EGFR variant III oncogene receptor cells (U87EGFRvIII) at varying cell separations. Using a thermodynamics-derived approach we analyzed the cell-separation dependence of the signaling stability, and...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • NolR and nodulation regulation [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory protein. Here, we present the X-ray...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Modulation of the shade regulatory network [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana respond to foliar shade and neighbors who may become competitors for light resources by elongation growth to secure access to unfiltered sunlight. Challenges faced during this shade avoidance response (SAR) are different under a light-absorbing canopy and during neighbor detection where light remains abundant. In...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Woodhouse et al., Origin, inheritance, and gene regulatory consequences of genome dominance in polyploids [Correction]
    [Apr 2014]

    EVOLUTION Correction for “Origin, inheritance, and gene regulatory consequences of genome dominance in polyploids,” by Margaret R. Woodhouse, Feng Cheng, J. Chris Pires, Damon Lisch, Michael Freeling, and Xiaowu Wang, which appeared in issue 14, April 8, 2014, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (111:5283–5288; first published March 24, 2014;...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Sah et al., Ion channel-kinase TRPM7 is required for maintaining cardiac automaticity [Correction]
    [Apr 2014]

    PHYSIOLOGY Correction for “Ion channel-kinase TRPM7 is required for maintaining cardiac automaticity,” by Rajan Sah, Pietro Mesirca, Marjolein Van den Boogert, Jonathan Rosen, John Mably, Matteo E. Mangoni, and David E. Clapham, which appeared in issue 32, August 6, 2013, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (110:E3037–E3046; first published July...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Cardoso et al., Natural variation of rice strigolactone biosynthesis is associated with the deletion of two MAX1 orthologs [Correction]
    [Apr 2014]

    PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Natural variation of rice strigolactone biosynthesis is associated with the deletion of two MAX1 orthologs,” by Catarina Cardoso, Yanxia Zhang, Muhammad Jamil, Jo Hepworth, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Stanley O. N. Dimkpa, Caroline Meharg, Mark H. Wright, Junwei Liu, Xiangbing Meng, Yonghong Wang, Jiayang Li, Susan R. McCouch,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Toll-Spatzle complex crystal structure [Biochemistry]
    [Apr 2014]

    Drosophila Toll receptors are involved in embryonic development and the immune response of adult flies. In both processes, the only known Toll receptor ligand is the human nerve growth factor-like cystine knot protein Spätzle. Here we present the crystal structure of a 1:1 (nonsignaling) complex of the full-length Toll receptor...
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  • Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses [Biochemistry]
    [Apr 2014]

    The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Training-free prediction of nucleosome occupancy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Nucleosomes alter gene expression by preventing transcription factors from occupying binding sites along DNA. DNA methylation can affect nucleosome positioning and so alter gene expression epigenetically (without changing DNA sequence). Conventional methods to predict nucleosome occupancy are trained on observed DNA sequence patterns or known DNA oligonucleotide structures. They are...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • acts as proton acceptor in PSII [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants oxidize water to the O2 we breathe, and consume CO2 during the synthesis of biomass. Although these vital processes are functionally and structurally well separated in photosynthetic organisms, there is a long-debated role for CO2/ in water oxidation. Using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry we demonstrate that acts...
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  • X-ray structure of human aquaporin 2 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a water channel found in the kidney collecting duct, where it plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin and...
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  • Tau mutants bind tubulin with enhanced affinity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Tau is a microtubule binding protein that forms pathological aggregates in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. Disease etiology is thought to arise from loss of native interactions between tau and microtubules, as well as from gain of toxicity tied to tau aggregation, although neither mechanism is well...
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  • Sfp1, a protein mediating sea star tenacity [Cell Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Sea stars adhere firmly but temporarily to various substrata as a result of underwater efficient adhesive secretions released by their tube feet. Previous studies showed that this material is mainly made up of proteins, which play a key role in its adhesiveness and cohesiveness. Recently, we solubilized the majority of...
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  • NOS2 activation in breast cancer [Cell Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Inflammation is widely recognized as an inducer of cancer progression. The inflammation-associated enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), has emerged as a candidate oncogene in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, and its increased expression is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor survival. Although these observations implicate NOS2 as an attractive...
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  • Sp8 regulates inner ear development [Developmental Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to...
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  • mTORC1 and miRNAs in kidney size control [Developmental Biology]
    [Apr 2014]

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are major posttranscriptional regulators of a wide variety of biological processes. However, redundancy among most miRNAs has made it difficult to identify their in vivo functions. We previously demonstrated that global inhibition of miRNA biogenesis in Xenopus resulted in a dramatically smaller pronephric kidney. This suggested that microRNAs...
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  • Endemism and convergence across the mycobiome [Ecology]
    [Apr 2014]

    Identifying the ecological processes that structure communities and the consequences for ecosystem function is a central goal of ecology. The recognition that fungi, bacteria, and viruses control key ecosystem functions has made microbial communities a major focus of this field. Because many ecological processes are apparent only at particular spatial...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Abrupt Amazonian tree mortality [Environmental Sciences]
    [Apr 2014]

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in...
    Categories: Journal Articles