Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

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  • Plant terpene diversification [Plant Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    Plants produce an array of specialized metabolites, including chemicals that are important as medicines, flavors, fragrances, pigments and insecticides. The vast majority of this metabolic diversity is untapped. Here we take a systematic approach toward dissecting genetic components of plant specialized metabolism. Focusing on the terpenes, the largest class of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • An acetyltransferase gene affecting rice yield [Agricultural Sciences]
    [Jan 2015]

    Grain weight is an important crop yield component; however, its underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identify a grain-weight quantitative trait locus (QTL) encoding a new-type GNAT-like protein that harbors intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity (OsglHAT1). Our genetic and molecular evidences pinpointed the QTL-OsglHAT1’s allelic variations to a 1.2-kb...
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  • A hominoid innominate from the Miocene of Pakistan [Anthropology]
    [Jan 2015]

    We describe a partial innominate, YGSP 41216, from a 12.3 Ma locality in the Siwalik Group of the Potwar Plateau in Pakistan, assigned to the Middle Miocene ape species Sivapithecus indicus. We investigate the implications of its morphology for reconstructing positional behavior of this ape. Postcranial anatomy of extant catarrhines...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Evolution in the OXT-OXTR system in primates [Anthropology]
    [Jan 2015]

    Oxytocin is a nonapeptide involved in a wide range of physiologic and behavioral functions. Until recently, it was believed that an unmodified oxytocin sequence was present in all placental mammals. This study analyzed oxytocin (OXT) in 29 primate species and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in 21 of these species. We...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Acoustic controlling cell-cell interactions [Applied Biological Sciences]
    [Jan 2015]

    The interactions between pairs of cells and within multicellular assemblies are critical to many biological processes such as intercellular communication, tissue and organ formation, immunological reactions, and cancer metastasis. The ability to precisely control the position of cells relative to one another and within larger cellular assemblies will enable the...
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  • Only three driver gene mutations for cancer [Applied Mathematics]
    [Jan 2015]

    Cancer arises through the sequential accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, how many such mutations are required for a normal human cell to progress to an advanced cancer? The best estimates for this number have been provided by mathematical models based on the relation between age...
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  • Wrinkling crystallography on spherical surfaces [Applied Physical Sciences]
    [Jan 2015]

    We present the results of an experimental investigation on the crystallography of the dimpled patterns obtained through wrinkling of a curved elastic system. Our macroscopic samples comprise a thin hemispherical shell bound to an equally curved compliant substrate. Under compression, a crystalline pattern of dimples self-organizes on the surface of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Free-energy landscape of VSDs [Applied Physical Sciences]
    [Jan 2015]

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are membrane-bound protein modules that confer voltage sensitivity to membrane proteins. VSDs sense changes in the transmembrane voltage and convert the electrical signal into a conformational change called activation. Activation involves a reorganization of the membrane protein charges that is detected experimentally as transient currents. These...
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  • Planetary eccentricity--Multiplicity relation [Astronomy]
    [Jan 2015]

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here...
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  • Vibrio VopQ inhibits yeast vacuole fusion [Biochemistry]
    [Jan 2015]

    Vesicle fusion governs many important biological processes, and imbalances in the regulation of membrane fusion can lead to a variety of diseases such as diabetes and neurological disorders. Here we show that the Vibrio parahaemolyticus effector protein VopQ is a potent inhibitor of membrane fusion based on an in vitro...
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  • Architecture of the Bag6 complex [Biochemistry]
    [Jan 2015]

    BCL2-associated athanogene cochaperone 6 (Bag6) plays a central role in cellular homeostasis in a diverse array of processes and is part of the heterotrimeric Bag6 complex, which also includes ubiquitin-like 4A (Ubl4A) and transmembrane domain recognition complex 35 (TRC35). This complex recently has been shown to be important in the...
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  • iLID: An improved light-inducible dimer [Biochemistry]
    [Jan 2015]

    The discovery of light-inducible protein–protein interactions has allowed for the spatial and temporal control of a variety of biological processes. To be effective, a photodimerizer should have several characteristics: it should show a large change in binding affinity upon light stimulation, it should not cross-react with other molecules in the...
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  • UCP4 and ATPase are spatially separated at IMM [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    Because different proteins compete for the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, an efficient mechanism is required for allocation of associated chemical potential to the distinct demands, such as ATP production, thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), etc. Here, we used the superresolution technique dSTORM (direct stochastic optical...
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  • Helical buckling of filopodia [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    Cells can interact with their surroundings via filopodia, which are membrane protrusions that extend beyond the cell body. Filopodia are essential during dynamic cellular processes like motility, invasion, and cell–cell communication. Filopodia contain cross-linked actin filaments, attached to the surrounding cell membrane via protein linkers such as integrins. These actin...
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  • Hooking She3p onto She2p for mRNA transport [Cell Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    The segregation of approximately two dozen distinct mRNAs from yeast mother to daughter cell cytoplasm is a classical paradigm for eukaryotic mRNA transport. The information for transport resides in an mRNA element 40–100 nt in length, known as “zipcode.” Targeted transport requires properly positioned actin filaments and cooperative loading of...
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  • Rabin8 activation by ERK phosphorylation [Cell Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    Exocytosis is tightly regulated in many cellular processes, from neurite expansion to tumor proliferation. Rab8, a member of the Rab family of small GTPases, plays an important role in membrane trafficking from the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. Rabin8 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)...
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  • Deletion of TAK1 leads to osteopetrosis [Cell Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    The MAP kinase TGFβ-activated kinase (TAK1) plays a crucial role in physiologic and pathologic cellular functions including cell survival, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and oncogenesis. However, the entire repertoire of its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. Here, we found that ablation of Tak1 in myeloid cells causes osteopetrosis in...
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  • ETV2 directly converts human fibroblasts into ECs [Cell Biology]
    [Jan 2015]

    Transplantation of endothelial cells (ECs) is a promising therapeutic approach for ischemic disorders. In addition, the generation of ECs has become increasingly important for providing vascular plexus to regenerated organs, such as the liver. Although many attempts have been made to generate ECs from pluripotent stem cells and nonvascular cells,...
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  • In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging [Chemistry]
    [Jan 2015]

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue (18F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After...
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  • Patterns of text reuse in a scientific corpus [Computer Sciences]
    [Jan 2015]

    We consider the incidence of text “reuse” by researchers via a systematic pairwise comparison of the text content of all articles deposited to arXiv.org from 1991 to 2012. We measure the global frequencies of three classes of text reuse and measure how chronic text reuse is distributed among authors in...
    Categories: Journal Articles