Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
  • Timing the impact of literacy on visual processing [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    Learning to read requires the acquisition of an efficient visual procedure for quickly recognizing fine print. Thus, reading practice could induce a perceptual learning effect in early vision. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in literate and illiterate adults, we previously demonstrated an impact of reading acquisition on both high-...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • A model for the generation of ER morphologies [Cell Biology]
    [Dec 2014]

    The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms different morphologies composed of tubules and sheets. Proteins such as the reticulons shape the ER by stabilizing the high membrane curvature in cross-sections of tubules and sheet edges. Here, we show that membrane curvature along the edge lines is also critical for ER shaping....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Actin stress in cell reprogramming [Cell Biology]
    [Dec 2014]

    Cell mechanics plays a role in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation. To understand this process better, we created a genetically encoded optical probe, named actin–cpstFRET–actin (AcpA), to report forces in actin in living cells in real time. We showed that stemness was associated with increased force in actin. We reprogrammed...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Wnt signaling in Osterix-expressing cells [Developmental Biology]
    [Dec 2014]

    Wnt signaling is a critical regulator of bone development, but the identity and role of the Wnt-producing cells are still unclear. We addressed these questions through in situ hybridization, lineage tracing, and genetic experiments. First, we surveyed the expression of all 19 Wnt genes and Wnt target gene Axin2 in...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Missing heritability: The role of common variants [Genetics]
    [Dec 2014]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs), also called common variant association studies (CVASs), have uncovered thousands of genetic variants associated with hundreds of diseases. However, the variants that reach statistical significance typically explain only a small fraction of the heritability. One explanation for the “missing heritability” is that there are many additional...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • FAT10-MAD2 binding is important for cancer growth [Medical Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    FAT10 (HLA-F-adjacent transcript 10) is a ubiquitin-like modifier that is commonly overexpressed in various tumors. It was found to play a role in mitotic regulation through its interaction with mitotic arrest-deficient 2 (MAD2). Overexpression of FAT10 promotes tumor growth and malignancy. Here, we identified the MAD2-binding interface of FAT10 to...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Role of calpain in Wolfram syndrome [Medical Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    Wolfram syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by diabetes and neurodegeneration and considered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disease. Despite the underlying importance of ER dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome and the identification of two causative genes, Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) and Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), a molecular mechanism linking the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Plasma DNA sequencing in SLE [Medical Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    We performed a high-resolution analysis of the biological characteristics of plasma DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients using massively parallel genomic and methylomic sequencing. A number of plasma DNA abnormalities were found. First, aberrations in measured genomic representations (MGRs) were identified in the plasma DNA of SLE patients. The...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Pneumolysin and streptolysin O glycan receptors [Microbiology]
    [Dec 2014]

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pneumolysin (Ply) is a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Membrane cholesterol is required for the cytolytic activity of this toxin, but it is not clear whether cholesterol is the only cellular receptor. Analysis of Ply binding to a glycan microarray revealed that Ply has lectin...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Connectivity dynamics and seizure onset zone [Neuroscience]
    [Dec 2014]

    The human brain is a dynamic networked system. Patients with partial epileptic seizures have focal regions that periodically diverge from normal brain network dynamics during seizures. We studied the evolution of brain connectivity before, during, and after seizures with graph-theoretic techniques on continuous electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings (5.4 ± 1.7 d...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Evolution of Bantu kinship [Anthropology]
    [Dec 2014]

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Splice site correction by engineered U2AF65 [Applied Biological Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    Purine interruptions of polypyrimidine (Py) tract splice site signals contribute to human genetic diseases. The essential splicing factor U2AF65 normally recognizes a Py tract consensus sequence preceding the major class of 3′ splice sites. We found that neurofibromatosis- or retinitis pigmentosa-causing mutations in the 5′ regions of Py tracts severely...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Osteoinductivity of devitalized cartilage template [Applied Biological Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    The role of cell-free extracellular matrix (ECM) in triggering tissue and organ regeneration has gained increased recognition, yet current approaches are predominantly based on the use of ECM from fully developed native tissues at nonhomologous sites. We describe a strategy to generate customized ECM, designed to activate endogenous regenerative programs...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Volumetric superresolution imaging [Applied Physical Sciences]
    [Dec 2014]

    Single molecule-based superresolution imaging has become an essential tool in modern cell biology. Because of the limited depth of field of optical imaging systems, one of the major challenges in superresolution imaging resides in capturing the 3D nanoscale morphology of the whole cell. Despite many previous attempts to extend the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Protein kinase IKK{beta} activates IRF5 [Biochemistry]
    [Dec 2014]

    The siRNA knockdown of IFN Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) in the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line Gen2.2 prevented IFNβ production induced by compound CL097, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). CL097 also stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF5 at Ser462 and stimulated the nuclear translocation of wild-type IRF5, but not...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • IKK{beta} phosphorylates and activates IRF5 [Biochemistry]
    [Dec 2014]

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is essential for the induction of inflammatory cytokines, but the mechanism by which IRF5 is activated is not well understood. Here we present evidence that the kinase IKKβ phosphorylates and activates IRF5 in response to stimulation in several inflammatory pathways, including those...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Structure of the Crumbs-PALS1 complex [Biochemistry]
    [Dec 2014]

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Lipolysis inhibits adipocyte glucose uptake [Biochemistry]
    [Dec 2014]

    Anabolic and catabolic signaling oppose one another in adipose tissue to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis, but these pathways are often dysregulated in metabolic disorders. Although it has long been established that stimulation of the β-adrenergic receptor inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, the mechanism has remained unclear. Here we...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • UbcH7 regulates 53BP1 stability [Biochemistry]
    [Dec 2014]

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is not only key to genome stability but is also an important anticancer target. Through an shRNA library-based screening, we identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme H7 (UbcH7, also known as Ube2L3), a ubiquitin E2 enzyme, as a critical player in DSB repair. UbcH7 regulates both the steady-state...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • How HCMV Exo mutations cause GCV resistance [Biochemistry]
    [Dec 2014]

    Many antiviral and anticancer drugs are nucleoside analogs that target polymerases and cause DNA chain termination. Interestingly, ganciclovir (GCV), the first line of therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, induces chain termination despite containing the equivalent of a 3′-hydroxyl group. Certain HCMV GCV resistance (GCVr) mutations, including ones associated with...
    Categories: Journal Articles